Difference Between Point Mutation and Chromosomal Mutation | Point Mutation vs Chromosomal Mutation

Chromosomal mutations can cause gene imbalance as well as unmasking of deleterious alleles in other chromosomes. Hence, the impact of chromosomal mutation is high when comparing to point mutation. Since chromosomal mutations occur in a part of a chromosome, it can include many genes. Hence, the magnitude of the impact of chromosomal mutation is extremely high. Klinefelter syndrome, Turner syndrome, and Down syndrome are several syndromes that occur due to chromosomal mutations.

What are the Similarities Between Point Mutation and Chromosomal Mutation

  • Point mutation and chromosomal mutation are two types of genetic mutations occurring in living organisms.
  • In both cases, the nucleotide sequences are altered.
  • Thus, both types of mutations can cause lethal diseases.

What is the Difference Between Point Mutation and Chromosomal Mutation

Point mutation is a single nucleotide change that occurs in a DNA or RNA sequence while chromosomal mutation is a structural or numerical change in chromosomes. Thus, this is the key difference between point mutation and chromosomal mutation. In point mutation, changes occur in a single base pair. But in chromosomal mutation, changes occur in a part of a chromosome or the total number of chromosomes in a chromosome set. Therefore, this is also a significant difference between point mutation and chromosomal mutation.

Moreover, a further difference between point mutation and chromosomal mutation is the impact of the mutation. The impact of a point mutation is comparatively low while it is high in chromosomal mutation. Also, the point mutations are caused due to insertions, deletions, changes, etc, while chromosomal mutations are caused due to duplication, translocation, inversions, deletion, non-disjunction of chromosomes, crossing over, etc. Therefore, this is a major difference between point mutation and chromosomal mutation. Sickle cell anemia, hemophilia, cystic fibrosis, Huntington syndrome, Tay-Sachs disease, and cancers are some of the diseases that occur due to point mutations. On the other hand, Klinefelter syndrome, Turner syndrome, and Down syndrome are some syndromes that occur due to chromosomal mutations.

Difference Between Point Mutation and Chromosomal Mutation | Point Mutation vs Chromosomal Mutation

Summary – Point Mutation vs Chromosomal Mutation

Point mutation refers to a single base pair alteration in a DNA or RNA sequence. It is a small scale mutation. Whereas, chromosomal mutation refers to a structural or numerical change in chromosomes of an organism. It is a large scale mutation. The impact of chromosomal mutation is high since the altered segment of a chromosome may include several or many genes. Point mutations occur due to change, insertion, or deletion. On the other hand, chromosomal mutation may occur due to duplication, translocation, inversions, deletion, non-disjunction of chromosomes, crossing over, etc. Thus, this is the summary of the difference between point mutation and chromosomal mutation.

Reference:

1. “Point Mutation.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 4 Feb. 2014, Available here.
2. “Genetic Mutation.” Nature News, Nature Publishing Group, Available here.

Image Courtesy:

1. “Point mutations-en” By Jonsta247 – Own work (CC BY-SA 4.0) via Commons Wikimedia
2. “Chromosomes mutations-en” By GYassineMrabetTalk✉This W3C-unspecified vector image was created with Inkscape. – Own work based on Chromosomenmutationen.png (Public Domain) via Commons Wikimedia

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>